the facts are clear

Evidence-based research and advocacy is at the core of our mission. 

After nearly a decade in Washington, DC, Sarah E. Towne went from academia to entrepreneur with the goal of using evidence-based academic literature and research to improve the daily lives of working Americans. As a trained sociologist and researcher of work-family policies and family economic security, she used her expertise to advocate for change at the national level. 

The advocacy organizations listed below are ones Sarah worked directly for or with. Whether it was as a Research Intern with the Institute for Women's Policy Research or as the Researcher and Writer for Workplace Programs with the National Partnership, or as coalition partners to set the national work and family agenda. Using evidence-based research to raise awareness, educate, and inspire change is at the core of our mission at Second Shift Solutions. 


Women, men report similar levels of work-family conflicts

American Psychological Association

July 27, 2017

Contrary to public perception and many media accounts, women and men report similar levels of work-family conflicts, both in the form of work interfering with family and family interfering with work, according to research published by the American Psychological Association.

Flexible working, work–family conflict, and maternal gatekeeping: The daily experiences of dual‐earner couples

Laura S. Radcliffe &  Catherine Cassell

December 31, 2014

Traditional gender norms still play a role in parents' decisions to work flexibly and workers who opt for non‐traditional routes may feel stigmatized. HR departments and employers need to promote the legitimacy of male access to flexible working and work–life balance policies, so these are not perceived as opportunities for mothers alone. Greater father take‐up of work–life balance initiatives that offer more opportunities for involvement in childcare should be encouraged. Employers should offer a variety of flexible working arrangements to provide employees with desirable and healthy resolution options when faced with incidents of work–family conflict.

The Gendered Division of Housework and Couples' Sexual Relationships: A Reexamination

Daniel L. Carlson,   Amanda J. Miller,  Sharon Sassler, & Sarah Hanson

May 25, 2016

Couples who share chores have more sex! It's true. Couples report having more and higher quality sex when they are satisfied with their relationships. In today’s social climate, relationship quality and stability are generally highest when couples divide up the household labor in a way they see as equitable or fair. And the evidence shows that when men do a greater share of housework, women’s perceptions of relationship fairness and satisfaction are greater.By 2006, couples who reported sharing housework fairly equally, with the man doing more than a third and up to 65% of the housework, reported having sex significantly more often than did couples where the woman (or the man) did 65% or more of the housework.

Breadwinner Bonus and Caregiver Penalty in Workplace Rewards for Men and Women

Julia B. Bear & Peter Glick

December 14, 2016

An extensive body of research has documented that parenthood leads to different career outcomes for mothers and fathers.  Mothers suffer a penalty relative to non-mothers and men in the form of lower perceived competence and commitment, higher professional expectations, lower likelihood of hiring and promotion, and lower recommended salaries. The motherhood penalty can become a breadwinner bonus if mothers present themselves as family breadwinners. Evidence from two studies supports the notion that the fatherhood bonus may be better understood as a "breadwinner bonus" that can apply to mothers as well as fathers, whereas the "caregiver penalty" remained gendered, occurring for mothers but not fathers.

Gender Differences in Work-Family Guilt in Parents of Young Children

Jessica L. Borelli, S. Katherine Nelson, Laura M. River, Sarah A. Birken, & Corinne Moss-Racusin

January 30, 2016

The transition to parenthood is a watershed moment for most parents, introducing the possibility of intra-individual and interpersonal growth or decline. Given the increasing number of dual-earner couples in the United States, new parents’ attitudes towards employment (as well as the ways in which they balance employment and personal demands) may have an impact on their overall well-being.  Mothers have significantly higher work-family guilt and work-interfering-with-family guilt relative to fathers.


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The leading think tank in the United States applying quantitative and qualitative analysis of public policy through a gendered lens. IWPR conducts research to inspire public dialogue, shape policy, and improve the lives and opportunities of women.

Institute for Women's Policy Research


National advocacy organization advancing public policies, like paid family and medical leave, paid sick days, and equal pay, to promote workplace and economic equality throughout women’s lives.

National Partnership for Women & Families

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Covering all 50 states, MomsRising's mission is increasing family economic security, decreasing discrimination, and building a nation where both businesses and families can thrive.


Mom's Rising


The nation’s leading voice for dignity and fairness for the millions of domestic workers in the United States. NDWA works for respect, recognition, and inclusion in labor protections for domestic workers, the majority of whom are immigrants and women of color.

National Domestic Workers Alliance


Leading legal and political organization fighting for gender justice and ending discrimination against all women and girls. The TIME’S UP Legal Defense Fund connects those who experience sexual misconduct in the workplace or in trying to advance their careers with legal and public relations assistance.

National Women's Law Center

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The national campaign to win paid family leave by 2022. PL+US is a partnership of employees, employers, consumers, and investors that won paid family leave for nearly 6 million at companies like Walmart, Starbucks, CVS and more.

Paid Leave for the United States



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Second Shift Solutions

3130 W. Fielder St.

Tampa, FL 33611

Phone: 303.877.0542